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Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *Frenkisk), also known as Old Franconian or Old Frankish, was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.. After the Salian Franks settled in Roman Gaul, its speakers in Picardy and Île-de-France were outnumbered by the local populace who spoke Proto-Romance dialects, e.g. Old French. Find the perfect Reaktor stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from premium Reaktor of the highest quality. Frankish (also Old Franconian or Old Frankish) was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century. The language itself is poorly attested, but it gave rise to numerous loanwords in Old French. Old Dutch is the term for the Old Franconian dialects spoken in the Low Countries until about the 12th century.. During the Merovingian period, Frankish had significant.

The West Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations not found in North and East Germanic.

While each had its own distinct characteristics, there certainly must have still been a high degree of mutual intelligibility between these dialects.

In fact, it is unclear whether the West Germanic continuum of this time period, or indeed Franconian itself, should still be considered a single language or that it should be considered a collection of similar dialects.

In any case, it appears that the Frankish tribes, or the later Franks, fit primarily into the Istvaeonic dialect group, with certain Ingvaeonic influences towards the northwest still seen in modern Dutch , and more Irminonic High German influences towards the southeast.

Modern scholars of the Migration Period [ who? It is speculated that these tribes originally spoke a range of related Istvaeonic dialects in the West Germanic branch of Proto-Germanic.

Sometime in the 4th or 5th centuries, it becomes appropriate to speak of Old Franconian rather than an Istvaeonic dialect of Proto-Germanic. Very little is known about what the language was like during this period.

One older runic sentence dating from around — AD is on the sword sheath of Bergakker. Another early sentence from the early 6th century AD is found in the Lex Salica.

This phrase was used to free a serf :. During this early period, the Franks were divided politically and geographically into two groups: the Salian Franks and the Ripuarian Franks.

The language or set of dialects spoken by the Salian Franks during this period is sometimes referred to as early "Old Low Franconian", and consisted of two groups: "Old West Low Franconian" and "Old East Low Franconian".

The language or set of dialects spoken by the Ripuarian Franks are referred to just as Old Franconian dialects or, by some, as Old Frankish dialects.

However, as already stated above, it may be more accurate to think of these dialects not as early Old Franconian but as Istvaeonic dialects in the West Germanic branch of Proto-Germanic.

At around AD the Franks probably still spoke a range of related dialects and languages rather than a single uniform dialect or language. During the expansion into France and Germany, many Frankish people remained in the original core Frankish territories in the north i.

The Franks united as a single group under Salian Frank leadership around AD. Politically, the Ripuarian Franks existed as a separate group only until about AD.

After that they were subsumed under the Salic Franks. The Franks were united, but the various Frankish groupings must have continued to live in the same areas, and speak the same dialects, although as a part of the growing Frankish Empire.

There must have been a close relationship between the various Franconian dialects. There was also a close relationship between Old Low Franconian i.

Old Dutch and its neighbouring Saxon-based languages and dialects to the north and northeast, i. Old Saxon and the related Anglo-Saxon dialects called Old English and Old Frisian.

A widening cultural divide grew between the Franks remaining in the north and the rulers far to the south. It is not known what they called their language, but it is possible that they always called it " Diets " i.

Philologists think of Old Dutch and Old West Low Franconian as being the same language. However, sometimes reference is made to a transition from the language spoken by the Salian Franks to Old Dutch.

The language spoken by the Salian Franks must have developed significantly during the seven centuries from to AD. At some point the language spoken by the Franks must have become identifiably Dutch.

Because Franconian texts are almost non-existent and Old Dutch texts scarce and fragmentary, it is difficult to determine when such a transition occurred, but it is thought to have happened by the end of the 9th century and perhaps earlier.

By AD the language spoken was recognisably an early form of Dutch, but that might also have been the case earlier.

A Dutch-French language boundary came into existence but this was originally south of where it is today. The Franks expanded south into Gaul.

Although the Franks would eventually conquer all of Gaul, speakers of Old Franconian apparently expanded in sufficient numbers only into northern Gaul to have a linguistic effect.

For several centuries, northern Gaul was a bilingual territory Vulgar Latin and Franconian. The language used in writing, in government and by the Church was Latin.

Eventually, the Franks who had settled more to the south of this area in northern Gaul started adopting the Vulgar Latin of the local population.

Holmes has proposed that a Germanic language continued to be spoken as a second tongue by public officials in western Austrasia and Neustria as late as the s, and that it completely disappeared as a spoken language from these regions only during the 10th century.

The Franks also expanded their rule southeast into parts of Germany. Their language had some influence on local dialects, especially for terms relating to warfare.

However, since the language of both the administration and the Church was Latin, this unification did not lead to the development of a supra-regional variety of Franconian nor a standardized German language.

At the same time that the Franks were expanding southeast into Germany, there were linguistic changes in Germany. The High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift was a phonological development sound change that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases, probably beginning between the 3rd and 5th centuries AD, and was almost complete before the earliest written records in the High German language were made in the 9th century.

The resulting language, Old High German , can be neatly contrasted with Low Franconian , which for the most part did not experience the shift.

The set of dialects of the Franks who continued to live in their original territory in the Low Countries eventually developed in three different ways.

Because of the geographical correspondence, it is particularly tempting [ according to whom? The Frankish Empire later extended throughout neighbouring France and Germany.

The language of the Franks had some influence on the local languages especially in France , but never took hold as a standard language because Latin was the international language at the time.

Ironically, the language of the Franks did not develop into the lingua franca. Franconian is the historic basis of the Central Franconian and Low Franconian dialects spoken today in western Germany largely the states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland , as well as the south-western half of North Rhine-Westphalia.

These dialects have, however, had little impact in the emergence of modern Standard German. The Franks conquered adjoining territories of Germany including the territory of the Allemanni.

The Frankish legacy survives in these areas, for example, in the names of the city of Frankfurt and the area of Franconia. The Franks brought their language with them from their original territory and, as in France, it must have had an effect on the local dialects and languages.

However, it is relatively difficult for linguists today to determine what features of these dialects are due to Frankish influence, because the latter was in large parts obscured, or even overwhelmed, by later developments.

Most French words of Germanic origin came from Frankish some others are English loanwords [11] , often replacing the Latin word which would have been used.

It is estimated that modern French took approximately stem words from Old Franconian. French : jardin "garden" , war e.

French : guerre "war" or social organization e. French : baron "baron". Not all of these loanwords have been retained in modern French.

French has also passed on words of Franconian origin to other Romance languages, and to English. See below a non-exhaustive list of French words of Frankish origin.

An asterisk prefixing a term indicates a reconstructed form of the Frankish word. Franconian words starting with s before another consonant developed it into es - e.

Middle English also adopted many words with Franconian roots from Old French; e. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. North Sea Germanic Ingvaeonic.

Weser-Rhine Germanic Istvaeonic. Elbe Germanic Irminonic. Old West Norse. Old East Norse. Old Gutnish. Old English West Germanic.

Continental West Germanic languages Old Frisian , Old Saxon , Old Dutch , Old High German. Crimean Gothic East Germanic. Further information: Franconia.

Main article: Franconian languages. Glottolog 3. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Dutch: Biography of a Language.

OUP USA. In: Heinrich Beck, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer , Dietrich Hakelberg ed. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin , pp. Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved October 23, In Bernard Comrie ed.

The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press. Old English and Its Closest Relatives. Stanford University Press.

Indeed it would not be inappropriate to regard them as dialects of one language. Comparative Syntax of Old English and Old Icelandic: Linguistic, Literary and Historical Implications.

Bern: Peter Lang. The continental Saxons from the migration period to the tenth century: an ethnographic perspective.

Studies in historical archaeoethnology, v. Suffolk: Woodbridge. There has never been such a thing as one Franconian language.

The Franks spoke different languages. Lamberts History of the Low Countries , pp. On page " …Een groot deel van het noorden van Frankrijk was in die tijd tweetalig Germaans-Romaans, en gedurende een paar eeuwen handhaafde het Germaans zich er.

Maar in de zevende eeuw begon er opnieuw een romaniseringsbeweging en door de versmelting van beide volken werd de naam Franken voortaan ook gebezigd voor de Romanen ten noordern van de Loire.

De nieuwe naam voor de Germaanse volkstaal hield hiermee verband: Diets of Duits, dat wil zeggen "volks", "volkstaal".

But in the seventh century a wave of romanisation began anew and because of the merging of the two peoples the name for the Franks was used for the Romance speakers north of the Loire.

The new name for the Germanic vernacular was related to this: "Diets"" or "Duits", i. Page " …Aan het einde van de negende eeuw kan er zeker van Nederlands gesproken worden; hoe long daarvoor dat ook het geval was, kan niet met zekerheid worden uitgemaakt.

Holmes , A. Schutz , A History of the French Language , p. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library of Manchester. Chambers, W. A short history of the German language.

London: Methuen. McKitterick , p. Phonologie et lexique du vieux bilinguisme franco-germanique, University of Lyon.

OFris bost marriage […]". Further, MDu had a related expression basture "whore, prostitute". However, the mainstream view sees this word as a formation built off of OFr fils de bast "bastard, lit.

Goth bansts , MDu banste , LG dial. Zeeland boest "barn" ; yet, this connection is false. Walter W. Skeat, The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology , s.

Fris dintje "to quiver", Icel dynta "to convulse". OLFrk be scirman , Du be schermen "to protect", comp. Du schermen "to fence".

Calisch and N. The word frank as "sincere", "daring" is attested very late, after the Middle Ages. The word does not occur as such in Old Dutch or OHG.

The meaning 'free' is therefore debatable. This is worth noting since most dictionaries continue to list this word's etymology as "obscure".

Onions, ed. This confusion is likely due to hesitation on how to represent what must have been the palatalized sound [ts]. Germanic languages. According to contemporary philology.

West Germanic. East Frisian Ems Saterland Frisian Weser Wangerooge Frisian Wursten Frisian North Frisian Insular Eiderstedt Föhr—Amrum Föhr Amrum Heligolandic Sylt Mainland Bökingharde Mooring Halligen Goesharde Northern Central Southern Karrharde Strand Wiedingharde West Frisian Hindeloopen Schiermonnikoog Westlauwers—Terschellings Mainland West Frisian Clay Frisian Wood Frisian Westereendersk Terschelling Old Frisian Middle Frisian.

Old Saxon Middle Low German. Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian Mecklenburgish West Pomeranian Brandenburgisch East Pomeranian —West Prussian Western East Pomeranian Eastern East Pomeranian Bublitzisch Pommerellisch Central Pomeranian West Central Pomeranian Low Prussian Mennonite Low German.

Hollandic West Flemish French Flemish Zeelandic East Flemish Brabantian Surinamese Dutch Jersey Dutch Mohawk Dutch Stadsfries Bildts Yiddish Dutch.

Meuse-Rhenish Limburgish Southeast Limburgish South Guelderish. Low Dietsch. German Standard German Austrian Standard German Swiss Standard German.

Central Franconian Ripuarian Colognian Moselle Franconian Luxembourgish Transylvanian Saxon Hunsrückisch Hunsrik Rhine Franconian Lorraine Franconian Palatine Volga German Pennsylvania German Hessian Amana.

Thuringian Upper Saxon Ore Mountainian Lusatian-Neumarkish Berlinerisch Silesian German High Prussian Wymysorys Halcnovian Prague German.

South Franconian East Franconian Main Franconian Vogtlandian. North Germanic and East Germanic. Proto-Norse Old Norse Old West Norse Old East Norse Old Gutnish.

If, in fact, there is a relationship here, the evidence of Lombardic would force us to conclude that the third phase must have begun by the late 6th century, rather earlier than most estimates, but this would not necessarily require that it had spread to German so early.

If, as some scholars believe, Lombardic was an East Germanic language and not part of the German language dialect continuum, it is possible that parallel shifts took place independently in German and Lombardic.

However, extant words in Lombardic show clear relations to the Bavarian language. Therefore, Werner Betz and others prefer to treat Lombardic as an Old High German variety.

There were close connections between Lombards and Proto- Bavarians. According to Jonas of Bobbio before in Lombardy, when Columbanus came to the Alemanni at Lake Constance shortly after , he made cupa "barrels", English cup , German Kufe burst.

This shows that in the time of Columban the shift from p to f had occurred neither in Alemannic nor in Lombardic. But the Edictus Rothari ; surviving manuscript after attests the forms grapworf 'throwing a corpse out of the grave', German Wurf and Grab , marhworf 'a horse', OHG marh , 'throws the rider off' , and many similar shifted examples.

So it is best to see the consonant shift as a common Lombardic—Bavarian—Alemannic shift between and , when these tribes had plenty of contact.

Last line of the Sachsenspiegel is "After the man's death, she is free of the man's rights"; that of the Deutschenspiegel "according to a man's rights".

The High German consonant shift — at least as far as the core group of changes is concerned — is an example of an exceptionless sound change and was frequently cited as such by the Neogrammarians.

Modern standard German is a compromise form between East Central German and northern Upper German, mainly based on the former but with the consonant pattern of the latter.

However, individual words from all German dialects and varieties have found their way into the standard. When a German word contains unshifted consonants, it is often a loanword from either Low German or, less often, Central German.

Either the shifted form has become obsolete, as in:. However, the majority of unshifted words in German are loaned from Latin, Romance , English or Slavic:.

Other ostensible irregularities in the sound shift, which we may notice in modern Standard German, are usually clarified by checking the etymology of an individual word.

Possible reasons include the following:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from High Germanic languages.

Main article: Rhenish fan. High German". Schwerdt has argued that the name 'High German consonant shift' is misleading and perhaps even inappropriate, as it does not adequately reflect the areal discrepancies of the individual changes undergone by the affected West Germanic dialects.

A summary of arguments". Older Germanic languages in a comparative perspective. Germanic languages.

According to contemporary philology. West Germanic. East Frisian Ems Saterland Frisian Weser Wangerooge Frisian Wursten Frisian North Frisian Insular Eiderstedt Föhr—Amrum Föhr Amrum Heligolandic Sylt Mainland Bökingharde Mooring Halligen Goesharde Northern Central Southern Karrharde Strand Wiedingharde West Frisian Hindeloopen Schiermonnikoog Westlauwers—Terschellings Mainland West Frisian Clay Frisian Wood Frisian Westereendersk Terschelling Old Frisian Middle Frisian.

Old Saxon Middle Low German. Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian Mecklenburgish West Pomeranian Brandenburgisch East Pomeranian —West Prussian Western East Pomeranian Eastern East Pomeranian Bublitzisch Pommerellisch Central Pomeranian West Central Pomeranian Low Prussian Mennonite Low German.

Hollandic West Flemish French Flemish Zeelandic East Flemish Brabantian Surinamese Dutch Jersey Dutch Mohawk Dutch Stadsfries Bildts Yiddish Dutch.

Meuse-Rhenish Limburgish Southeast Limburgish South Guelderish. Low Dietsch. German Standard German Austrian Standard German Swiss Standard German.

Central Franconian Ripuarian Colognian Moselle Franconian Luxembourgish Transylvanian Saxon Hunsrückisch Hunsrik Rhine Franconian Lorraine Franconian Palatine Volga German Pennsylvania German Hessian Amana.

Thuringian Upper Saxon Ore Mountainian Lusatian-Neumarkish Berlinerisch Silesian German High Prussian Wymysorys Halcnovian Prague German.

South Franconian East Franconian Main Franconian Vogtlandian. North Germanic and East Germanic. Proto-Norse Old Norse Old West Norse Old East Norse Old Gutnish.

Gothic Crimean Gothic Burgundian Vandalic. North East West Elbe Irminonic Weser-Rhine Istvaeonic North Sea Ingvaeonic Northwest Gotho-Nordic South.

Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic grammar Germanic parent language Ancient Belgian language. Grimm's law Verner's law Holtzmann's law Sievers's law Kluge's law Germanic substrate hypothesis West Germanic gemination High German consonant shift Germanic a-mutation Germanic umlaut Germanic spirant law Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law Great Vowel Shift.

Germanic verb Germanic strong verb Germanic weak verb Preterite-present verb Grammatischer Wechsel Indo-European ablaut.

Categories : Indo-European linguistics History of the German language Old High German Sound laws. Hidden categories: Articles containing Old High German ca.

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This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Z eit , [note 5] Z wei , [note 5] Z ehe cf. Bavarian: Kch ind cf.

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